Steering System Designs You Should Consider


There really are only two basic categories of steering system today; those that have pitman arms using a steering ‘box’ and those that don’t. Older cars and some current trucks use pitman arms, so for the sake of completeness, I’ve documented some common types. Newer cars and unibody light-duty trucks typically all use some derivative of rack and pinion steering.

Pitman arm components

Pitman arm mechanisms have a steering ‘box’ where the shaft from the steering wheel comes in along with a lever arm comes out – the pitman arm. This pitman arm is connected to the track rod or centre link, which is supported by idler arms. The tie rods connect to the track rod. There are a large number of variations of the actual mechanical linkage from direct-link where the pitman arm is connected directly to the track rod, to compound linkages where it is associated with one end of the steering system or perhaps the track rod via other rods. The example here shows a compound link (left).

Before the front wheels begin to turn, many of the steering box mechanisms that drive the pitman arm have a ‘dead spot’ inside the centre from the steering where you could turn the steering wheel a small amount. This slack can normally be adjusted by using a screw mechanism but it can’t ever be eliminated. The traditional benefit from these systems is that they give bigger mechanical advantage and thus work well on heavier vehicles. With the development of power steering, that has become a moot point and the steering system design is now more to do with mechanical weight, price and design. The following are the 4 basic types of steering box used in pitman arm systems.

Worm and sector

Worm and sector pitman arm steering box

In this sort of steering box, the end of your shaft from your steering wheel includes a worm gear attached to it. It meshes directly having a sector gear (so called because it’s a section of a full gear wheel). When the controls is turned, the shaft turns the worm gear, and the sector gear pivots around its axis as its teeth are moved across the worm gear. The sector gear is mounted on the cross shaft which passes through the steering box and out the bottom where it is splined, and also the the pitman arm is attached to the splines. When the sector gear turns, it turns the cross shaft, which turns the pitman arm, giving the output motion that is fed into the mechanical linkage around the track rod. The following diagram shows the active components that are present inside the sector and worm steering box. The package itself is sealed and filled with grease.

Worm and roller

Worm and roller pitman arm steering box

The worm and roller steering box is similar in design to the sector and worm box. The difference the following is that as opposed to having a sector gear that meshes with all the worm gear, there is a roller instead. The roller is attached to a roller bearing shaft and is held captive on the end of your cross shaft. As the worm gear turns, the roller is forced to move along it but because it is held captive on the cross shaft, it twists the cross shaft. Typically in these designs, the worm gear is actually an hourglass shape so that it is wider at the ends. Without the hourglass shape, the roller might disengage from this at the extents of its travel.

Worm and nut or recirculating ball

Worm and nut pitman arm steering box

This can be by far the most everyday sort of steering box for pitman arm systems. In a recirculating ball steering box, the worm drive has many more turns on it with a finer pitch. A box or nut is clamped on the worm drive that contains lots of ball bearings. These loop around the worm drive then out right into a recirculating channel within the nut where they may be fed back into the worm drive again. Hence recirculating. As the steering wheel is turned, the worm drive turns and forces the ball bearings to press against the channel inside the nut. This forces the nut to go along the worm drive. The nut itself has several gear teeth cast in to the outside of it and these mesh with the teeth on a sector gear which can be attached to the cross shaft the same as in the sector and worm mechanism. This system has much less free play or slack within it than the other designs, hence why it’s used the most. The example below shows a recirculating ball mechanism with the nut shown in cutaway in order to see the ball bearings along with the recirculation channel.

Cam and lever

lever and Cam pitman arm steering box

Cam and lever steering boxes are nearly the same as sector and worm steering boxes. The worm drive is regarded as a cam and has a much shallower pitch and the sector gear is replaced with two studs that sit in the cam channels. The studs slide along the cam channels which forces the cross shaft to rotate, turning the pitman arm, as the worm gear is turned. Among the design features of this style is that it turns the cross shaft 90° to the normal so it exits through the side of the steering box as opposed to the bottom. This may result in a very compact design when necessary.

Steering System designs : Rack and pinion

Rack and pinion steering components Rack and pinion steering cutaway

This is certainly by far the most everyday sort of steering you’ll find in any car today due to it’s relative simplicity and inexpensive. pinion and Rack systems give a much better feel for the driver, there isn’t the slop or slack associated with steering box pitman arm type systems. Unlike those pinion, rack and systems designs have no adjustability within them, so once they wear beyond a certain mechanical tolerance, they need replacing completely,. That’s the down-side. This is rare though.

In a rack and pinion system, the track rod is replaced with the steering rack which is a long, toothed bar with the tie rods attached to each end. On the end of the steering shaft there exists a simple pinion gear that meshes with the rack. Whenever you turn the steering wheel, the pinion gear turns, and moves the rack from left to right. Changing the size of the pinion gear alters the steering ratio. It really is so simple. The diagrams here show a good example rack and pinion system (left) and also a close-up cutaway of the steering rack itself (right).

Variable-ratio rack and pinion steering

This is a simple variation on the above design. All the components are the same, and it all works the same other than the spacing of the teeth on the rack varies depending on how close to the centre of the rack they are. In the middle, the teeth are spaced close together to give slight steering for your first part of the turn – good for not oversteering at speed. As being the teeth get further outside the centre, they increase in spacing slightly so that the wheels turn more for the same turn of the steering wheel towards full lock. Simple.

Here Is A Quick Tip About Getting Electric Cars


While the US government and invests research money into hydrogen powered cars, the news in green transportation is electric power.

Why all the fuss about running on electric?

Electric Cars: The Early Days…

The EV, or electric vehicle, is absolutely old news. The Scottish inventor Robert Davidson built one in 1837 and by the 1890s electric cars were being sold and made in Europe and the United States.

So, what happened to this environmentally friendly version of the horseless carriage?

The earliest electric cars were clean and quiet, but the cars ran out of energy in the most inconvenient places and they cost you a small fortune to buy. When Henry Ford’s assembly line brought the costs down and reliability up, gas run automobiles ran the electric car off the road. And the rest, as they say, is history. By the Roaring Twenties, transportation on streets and roads was powered by gas

It was only decades later that this world realized that oil had been a limited resource and a high pollution way to get around.

Today, government officials and scientific study has begun looking at ways to improve and revive the previous technology to ensure cars powered by electricity could compete in the open market making use of their gas-fueled cousins.

…And the Electric Car Now

On the road during 2010, the all electric Nissan is

manufactured to run for 100 miles without a recharge.

There are some who question whether the search for electric cars as an alternative to the gas powered automobile was ever serious. Oil companies possess a vested curiosity about keeping consumers addicted to gasoline.

Car makers have no incentive to push a cleaner car that could stay on the highway for decades with minor maintenance. Selling a new car to consumers every few years once the gas guzzler is broken down keeps the automobile industry in running a business. Getting customers back to change repair and oil worn parts in the combustion engine make many dollars for car dealerships and manufacturers.

Now, despite the lack of government and big business in the past, EVs are starting to get noticed. Small companies are popping up with EVs that can get up to speed quickly enough to outpace a Ferrari or perhaps a Porche over a 1/4 mile track. Batteries are also being improved to supply a longer range from charges.

More about electric cars around the Web:

EV World – reviews, Articles and education on EVs, Electric Hybrids, Hybids and EV Scooters will have you up to date on all the latest whether it’s just FYI or a bit of pre-buying research.

How Electric Cars Work – Look under the hood with a clear explanation in the technology behind electric models including photos, related and diagrams resources.

The Top Ten electric vehicles you can buy today (for the most part) – This blogger has a green attitude and plenty of info to share. Reviews the top ten electric cars including the Tesla Roadster, the Chevy Volt, UEV Spyder and more also in comments from other readers.

Tesla Motors – Get the scoop on the Tesla Roadster from the company which makes them…and reserve your personal if you’re in the market for a remarkably quiet, fuel efficient, two passenger sports vehicle.

Must See California

California draws millions of visitors from around the world to its sunny shores every year. Its expansive size, environmental diversity, rich culture, and fascinating history make it one of the great treasures of the United States. From vibrant cities like Los Angeles and San Francisco, to unparalleled natural splendor, California has something to offer everyone. We’ve compiled a list of the great spaces and places that you absolutely must visit in The Golden State. These destinations are as diverse as the state itself, and will appeal to naturalists, cosmopolitans, and families alike. Read on to learn about the jewels of the West Coast that you just can’t miss.

Napa Valley Wine Country


You don’t have to be a wine aficionado to appreciate Napa Valley. The region’s sun soaked vistas and balmy climate make it an ideal destination for the entire family! California’s outstanding agriculture is showcased in the local cuisine, with world-class restaurants making glorious use of the local bounty. Eat your way through this culinary powerhouse by sampling fresh caught California seafood, crisp produce, and artisanal cheeses. After you indulge, work it off by renting bikes and going for a scenic ride through the countryside. And of course, do yourself the favor of visiting at least a couple of vineyards to taste the products of one of the world’s greatest wine regions.

Redwood National Park


The Redwoods of Northern California are the tallest trees on planet earth. Standing before these giants is a truly breathtaking experience. Sign up for a ranger-led program or set out on your own to explore the remarkable diversity of this national park. Watch the gray whale migration from Klamath River Overlook, or get out of the car and go for a hike along the unblemished coastline. Look out for wildlife around you, as Roosevelt Elk and a wide variety of sea birds and mammals surround the area. No trip to Redwood National Park would be complete without seeing the Avenue of the Giants, a 31-mile scenic drive that bypasses some of the most extraordinary specimens in the 500-mile Redwood Forest belt.

Pacific Coast Highway


The Pacific Coast Highway, or State Route 1, begins south of Los Angeles in Orange County, and stretches up the coast to Mendocino County, north of Redwood National Park. Truly one of the greatest scenic roads in this country, it’s known the world over for running along some of the most gorgeous coastlines in the United States. There’s no better way to experience the California Coast than a road trip up the PCH. Start out in Los Angeles, and take a couple days to stop and visit the numerous towns and attractions along the route. We love making the trip during the springtime in a convertible, like the Fiat 500c from fiat dealership Los Angeles. Roll down the top, feel the wind in your hair, and let the open road take you away. Be sure to check out OC Fiat to find the perfect ride for your trip.

Working It On A Nissan X-Trail 2005


Hi there, first I’m canadian and my SUV so. I’m a hobbyist doing his best, not a mechanic, I don’t take control of other people’s installation issues. Anyway, I made the decision to buy a SUV some months ago, and it comes without the wiring harness for that trailer and also the hitch. I made it myself. In this part, only the wiring will be presented. This is for 4 pins harness connector. In any doubt, you can do while i have done for some wires; use a multimeter. Everything on that car works on a 12VDC. Ground yourself somewhere, skin a little bit of the wire and do function tests.

Step 1: Take Off Rear Left Plastic Pannel

Open the trunk door. Remove the pannel to your left. Do it without missing a piece. To obtain there, you’ll need to eliminate the Plastic trunk cover, plastic middle part where the truck door locked, styrofoam over the spare wheel, the spare wheel, the left part cover, the left part styrofoam, the rear left plactic pannel. And now, you have enough space to operate.

Step 2: Purchase an Adaptor of This Type

Step Three: Identify All the Right Colors of the SUV’s Wires

Seems I ignore the white wire; on adaptor, it is the ground, so obtain an empty spot sand it to clean metal, drill it and bolt it firmly in place.

Back is not applied to 4 pins connector. I used mine for a back-up horn device.

Step 4: Tiewrap All Lossen Components

‘Cause vibration can cause misconnection or wires to cut entirely.

Step 5: Put Back Your Rear Left Plastic You’re and Pannel Done!

Volvo Does Not Want To Comprise Power And Efficiency+D2966


Horsepower or fuel economy? How about both? The engineers at Volvo have outwitted compromise with the introduction of the remarkable new Drive-E Powertrain. Efficient power is the Drive-E mantra as well as the numbers – up to 302 hp or higher to 35 mpg – back it up.

The amount of cylinders is no longer important for describing power, Derek Crabb, Volvo’s VP of Powertrain Engineering tells us. Power isn’t based on cylinders but by the amount of air that flows from the engine. So Volvo engineers got to work developing a method that dramatically increases engine airflow. Generating power using this method allowed for a substantial decrease in the weight and size in the engine while improving output. Working in sync with the 8-speed gearbox, this integrated system delivers impressive power and MPG – giving us a new definition for high performance.

It’s considered a reason for pride that environmental sustainability is a cornerstone of Swedish design. Drive-E carries on that tradition. Because these Volvos consume less fuel and CO2 emissions are reduced by 30%, you can experience high-performance with a clear conscience.

Volvo has started introducing the Drive-E Powertrain in 2015 models that you can find at your local dealer today. You’ll get the chance to eliminate the compromise between power and efficiency throughout the whole Volvo family, as new models are introduced.

Facts and Fiction About Car Color

Take a peek at OC Auto and you find lots of motors all lined up of different colors, all trying to tempt someone to buy them. If you are in the market for a Jeep, Chrysler, Dodge or ram riverside is definitely the place to go – in fact they’ve got lots of cars in all different, shapes, sizes and colors.
But can the color of a car really make a difference? Are some colors more likely to be involved in accidents, stolen, cost more to insure or attract more attention of the traffic cops?
Let’s take a look at just a few facts . . . and fiction about the difference a color makes to your car.
Which Car Color Is The Safest?
Many drivers believe that lighter colored cars are safer on the roads – after all lighter colors are more visible which makes them safer. Some studies have in fact suggested that white cars have a 10% less chance of being involved in an accident during hours of daylight when compared to cars with lower visibility colors like blue, gray, black and silver.


Other experts suggest, however, the color should not be regarded as any sort of safety feature. They suggest that any benefits are incredibly small, perhaps as low as 3% and the behavior of the driver has a much greater influence on the likelihood of being involved in an accident.
If it’s safety you’re after choose whatever color you like but drive with care at all times.
Which Car Color Is More Theft Proof?
You may believe that bright red sports cars are the most likely to be targeted by thieves but the opposite is actually true. Car thieves prefer to blend in rather than stand out and are more likely to choose popular cars and colors. The most popular car colors are the most likely to be stolen which means that choosing something unusual like yellow, orange, bright red and green are less likely to attract the attention of car thieves.


Which Car Color is Cooler?
According to all our logic (and school science lessons) we believe that people in hot climates should drive white cars because they are cooler. There is a real lack of scientific research to support this theory when it comes to cars but it probably does follow that lighter colored cars are cooler in hot countries. There was one study which compared the interior temperature of a black car and a silver car which were parked in full sunlight for an hour. The internal temperature of the black car was found to be around 10 degrees higher.


Which Car Color Needs Least Maintenance?
According to the experts darker colored cars need more maintenance to keep them in tip top condition. The theory is that darker colors show up scratches and swirls much more clearly. If you neglect a car which is white or a pale color it will not show up quite so much as if you don’t properly clean, polish and maintain the paintwork of a darker colored car.
Some people would argue that darker colored cars deserve the extra attention because the rewards speak for themselves. Nothing looks quite as stunning as a black car which has been shined to within an inch of its life, particularly if it is also wet.
Which Car Color Is Cheaper To Insure?
The evidence suggests that insurance companies don’t discriminate against the color of a car although others may argue that it is cheaper to insure white cars. Perhaps some insurance companies also believe that they are less likely to be involved in accidents.

What To Do When You Are Afraid Of Dark Roads

Many parents think their teens are safe after dark as long as teens are away from the road. Unfortunately, it doesn’t need to be very late for teens to be at risk. Most fatal nighttime crashes involving teens happen before midnight before it gets too late.

Nighttime driving presents a distinctive set of challenges for drivers of all ages. Visibility is poor and there is a higher chances of impaired or fatigued drivers. Also, late outings often are recreational. Teens who usually follow the rules can get easily distracted or take risks.

Most state laws allow teens to drive unsupervised after 9 p.m. despite the risks. Parents should set household rules, which is often outlined in parent-teen agreements, that include restrictions on nighttime driving.


7. More than half of teens killed in crashes were not restrained by way of a seat belt

According to the National DIH InfographicHighway Traffic Safety Administration, seat belts are the single most effective traffic safety device for preventing injury and death. Wearing a seat belt can reduce the potential risk of crash injuries by 50 %. Sadly, teens buckle up far less frequently than adults. In 2009, 56 percent of drivers ages 16 to 20 associated with fatal crashes were not wearing seat belts.

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